Thursday, March 19, 2009

March 16 2009 -- My Birthday -- A New Path, a New Story!

Thanks to all of you who joined me for celebrating my lovely birthday! My thanks go also to Mama who did an exceptional work the same day like today ... Monday 2:00 pm, March 16 1981.... when I was born ... I remember that the Doctor helped me to give to you my lovely first hug which kicked off our eternally love ...There are other friends who are very far from where I am currently located but, who called, sent a gift and pried for me.... My God bless you all!! See you next year 2010.... It will again be Fun!!

Thursday, March 5, 2009

Bacterial Water Pollution: Who is Responsible?

Illustration of sources of Escherichia Coli (E.coli) bacteria in a lake (Palladino, et al 2005).
The professional wine taster can tell us the country where the wine he tastes was made. Similarly, DNA analysis can tell us the source (human, dog, and birds) of bacteria in water. DNA analysis is a technique applied to individual DNA samples to determine if the samples are from the same species (Wikipedia 2009). This deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid which has a shape of two genetic material fibers spiraled around each other like a twisted ladder. Furthermore, DNA carries the hereditary material which has information that relates individuals of the same species. Therefore, this information helps the DNA analysis recognize distinct entities from the same species.
DNA analysis started in 1869, when a Swiss physician named Friedrich Miescher isolated it in the laboratory (Wikipedia 2009). One hundred and forty years later, this kind of analysis is applied in different research. In the court of justice, DNA analysis is the key component to identify a criminal. During 2002, 10 people were saved from death row on account of evidence from DNA analysis (Ellis 2002). Moreover, DNA analysis is used in preventive medicine in prenatal tests to check for damaging gene mutations in families at risk. For example DNA analysis can detect Hemophilia, which is a hereditary disorder marked by failure of blood to clot (Sommer SS and Sobell JL 1987).

Nowadays, DNA analysis is used in water quality research to determine the sources of bacteria pollution. The sources of an indicator bacteria like Escherichia Coli in water can be identified as soil, human and animals (birds, dogs, ruminants and chickens). The previous water quality analysis methods, like the membrane filtration method, could not easily identify the sources of bacteria. The membrane filter method consists of filtering water through micro-sized membrane which retains bacteria, and permits the growth on an appropriate culture media. After the incubation period a number of colonies appear on the membrane. In this processes, additional laboratory analyses are then applied in order to identify the sources. The DNA analysis made the bacteria identification efficient, rapid and possible. In addition, the source identification helped to establish mechanisms of pollution source control, thus reducing the spread of waterborne diseases and ensuring the distribution of safe drinking water.
In the future, further research should focus on the identification of potential sources of bacteria in water. These microscopic life forms are diverse, and include both bacteria and viruses. This area of research is new, and it requires more detailed studies of both bacteria and viruses’ interactions in water. The findings of the research could lead to the eradication of waterborne diseases. Indeed, the sources will be known and effective control methods could be developed.
DNA (accessed February 13, 2009)
Ellis, K. (2002). DNA Fingerprinting in a court of law. (Accessed February 13, 2009)
Palladino, M. A., Tiedemann, J. A. and Atherholt T. B. Microbial Source Tracking in the Manasquan River Estuary. Division of Sciences, Research and Technology, research. 2005 (accessed February 15, 2009)
Sommer,S.S., and Sobell, J.L. (1987). Application of DNA-based diagnosis to patient care: the example of hemophilia A. (accessed February 13, 2009).

LifeEngine Clean Water Project

LifeEngine Clean Water Project
Testing Water Filtration Technology in Bisate Village